I was just writing a post covering Congestive Heart Failure when I relised that I was touching on a lot of anatomy and the post was becoming far too lengthy. So, from now on, every time I discuss a new body system, I’m going to start with a brief, basic anatomy and physiology refresher. While we’re still on the topic of cardiac related conditions, I thought we could start there! (if you're an A&P ace this post may not be for you so feel free to move on to the other posts on this page, however it never hurts to have a little refresher).
As you can see in the first image, the heart consists of four chambers, starting at the top we have the two atria, and then at the bottom we have the two ventricles. Now to confuse you a bit, on the left side of the image, we have the right side of the heart and on the right side of the image we have the left side of the heart (because in anatomy, we refer to the person’s left and right, as opposed to our view). So, starting with the right atrium, this is connected to the superior and inferior vena cava. These veins carry oxygen depleted and carbon dioxide rich blood back to the heart where the right atrium is the first point of call. The blood will then travel to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve. Blood is then ejected from the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve, to the pulmonary artery which leads to the lungs. Interesting fact: The pulmonary artery is the only artery in the body which carries oxygen depleted blood, generally this is the work of the venous system, not the arterial system. The blood then passes through the lungs and becomes oxygenated, from here the pulmonary vein takes the oxygenated blood to the left atrium. Once in the left atrium, the blood will travel through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle (the major chamber of the heart). Ventricular contraction will force this oxygen rich blood through the aortic valve, in to the aorta which will then send the blood throughout the body where it will take approximately one minute to travel around the body and back to the right atrium where the cycle will begin again.
Cotard delusion is a rare mental illness in which the affected person holds the delusional belief that they are already dead, do not exist, are putrefying, or have lost their blood or internal organs. Statistical analysis of a hundred-patient cohort indicates that the denial of self-existence is a symptom present in 69% of the cases of Cotard's syndrome; yet, paradoxically, 55% of the patients present delusions of immortality.
In 1880, the neurologist Jules Cotard described the condition as Le délire des négations ("The Delirium of Negation"), a psychiatric syndrome of varied severity. A mild case is characterized by despair and self-loathing, while a severe case is characterized by intense delusions of negation and chronic psychiatric depression. The case of Mademoiselle X describes a woman who denied the existence of parts of her body and of her need to eat. She said that she was condemned to eternal damnation and therefore could not die a natural death. In the course of suffering "The Delirium of Negation", Mademoiselle X died of starvation.
The Cotard delusion is not mentioned in either the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the tenth edition of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) of the World Health Organization. #doctor #doctors #nurse #medical #medicine #medstudent #medicalstudent #treatment #info #health #healthy #hospital #emergency #paramedic #study #learn #treat #surgery #patient #medschool #medicalschool
Parasites are organisms that live off other organisms, or hosts, to survive. Some parasites don’t noticeably affect their hosts. Others grow, reproduce, or invade organ systems that make their hosts sick, resulting in a parasitic infection.
Parasites have acquired apparently effective mechanisms for escape from normal host defenses and clearance. These mechanisms may be classified as antigenic mimicry, antigenic depletion, antigenic variation, immunologic indifference, immunologic diversion, and immunologic subversion.
The specific immune response to parasites leads to the production of antibody. Infection by protozoan parasites is associated with the production of IgG and IgM. With helminths there is, in addition, the synthesis of substantial amounts of IgE. IgA is produced in response to intestinal protozoa, such as Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.
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No words can express how much this woman means 2 me. She stood by me for hours, days, months when I was in @sickkidstoronto #hospital
tears dripping down her face crying & praying that I will survive so I can live my #life
My parents came to #Toronto #Canada
sacrifliced everything, worked so hard that me & my sister can have a better life. We came with nothing I didn't have what all the other cool kids in school had fancy cars, a house, money... the four of us slept on 1 mattress on the floor. I didn't know what white privilege was I lived in the hood was raised by the streets #yardie #ting
worked hard learned 2 hustle 9-5 like my parents making minimum wage just so we could have a #future
30 years later I got 2 pick up my 1st passenger I ❤ U #Forever #Mom #GAZA #Gazamiseh #FREEWORLDBOSS #Awooo #Unity6
Hi again, this is for all the people asking about "In Love" and ruth and zae and glitter promise
So ruth and zae have beef IRL, zae leaked Ruth's nudes on instagram, now his page was deleted and Ruth's is too
This all started around after of In Love. When everyone because a little famous or REALLY famous. I was Rajanae Smith. Irl my name is rajanae williams. .
Drama between zae and ruth: zae leaked nudes of ruth, ruth lesked nudes of zae, they both got their accounts dismissed(deleted)
Drama Between whole cast: so my real mom was a director in the series In Love. There was the other kid i forgot her name it was a long time ago, she was the daughter of my's friend, also a director. So than they got in a fight of how they get more, "i get more than you" "no your ugly i get more" childish shit like that. Eventually the drama passed down to us kids, meaning me and the other girl.. Lets call her paris, paris got to insta fighting. My mom's "friend".. Mary, mary walk talm bout how her childs more talented and beautiful, yet aren't i the one who has a clear ass face and played a rile as someone who talked. So we got to beefing. She played the toddler and remember i was 6 she was 4. She did not even talk, while i did. People were commenting how flawless and beautiful i was.
#imvu #pregnancy #imvumodel #model #imvupreg #imvupregnsncy #imvusinger #singer #imvumodel #model #imvubirthday #birthday #day #birth #morning #afternoon #evening #night #sunset #baby #babyshower #imvushower #imvubabyshower #morning #imvumorning #post #imvupost #meeting #babymeeting #hospital #breakups #imvubreakup #beef