“Treat smart as an add-on, an upgrade, and not the end itself.... You can also future-proof conventional designs for smart retrofits later on. When you replace street lamps, provide a mounting point for whatever wireless or sensor technology comes next. When you dig up streets, lay conduit for future broadband lines. Whatever they may be made of, there will be powerful economic reasons to squeeze them into the same slots, just as fiber optics followed the paths laid down by the telephone and telegraph wires that preceded them. When you create urban software, make it simple, modular, and open source. Anytime you generate a new data stream, document and archive it as openly as you can” (Anthony Townsend, #SmartCities
: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, 286).