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Sikh History

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Guru Amar Das ji (Part 3) Guru Angad had collected the hymns of Guru Nanak. To these Guru Amar Das added the hymns of the former as well as his own. Guru Amardas appointed three women as preachers was a unique contribution of Amardas. Guru Amardas ji were highle pleased with one of his disciple named Bhai Jetha, first Guru Amardas ji married his daughter Bibi Bhani to Bhai Jetha, and then delighted with the couple's devotion, he passed on the Guruship to Bhai Jetha as Guru Ramdas. In his devotion to Guru Nanak, Guru Angad, God and his Sikhs Guru Amardas was as firm as a rock. He departed from this world on September 1, 1574. They administered both to the religious and the temporal needs of the disciples; for, in the Guru's system legitimate temporal needs were included in the religious needs. They collected offerings from the disciples and sent them to the Guru for the common use of the community. The Guru himself earned his living as a small tradesman. As an anti-caste and anti-pollution measure, he made it incumbent that no one, irrespective of his status or caste, could see him unless he had first partaken, along with others, of the food cooked at the common kitchen. Emperor Akbar had also to dine at the langar before he met the Guru. In his time, ascetics and recluses again made an attempt to enter the Guru's flock. But the Guru issued a final injunction that no recluse or ascetic could be a Sikh. He also denounced the system of sati and of purdah among women. According to the Guru, the human body was the temple of God. He, therefore, laid emphasis on keeping it healthy and sound to the end. For the same reason, he denounced the ascetic practices of torturing the body. The Guru felt that the health of the body could not be divorced from moral and spiritual well-being. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Amar Das ji (Part 2): All the same he took many significant steps. He established new centres for conveying to the people the message of Guru Nanak. Guru Amardas ji, condemnned Hindus for Sati, allowed widow remarriage and against Caste systems he started Guru Ka Langar. He passed on his Guru Ship to his son in law, Ramdas Sodhi, who was his most devoted disciple. Guru Amardas ji organised the proleystaion of Sikh faith into Manjis. He divided the area into 22 branches called Manjis and appointed a local Sikh preacher at each place. The preacher sat on a Manji (a cot) while the congregation all around it. Here are the name of the people he appointed to preach Sikhism. He started the system of holding two annual gatherings of his disciples from all over the country. At his headquarters, he undertook the construction of a baoli (a well with a perennial source of spring water). For the Sikhs the headquarters of the Guru and this baoli became a holy place of pilgrimage. (Photo Above is the photo of the gurudwara Baoli Sahib) #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Amar Das ji (Part 1)- Sri Guru Amar Das, though born in 1479, became the Guru in 1552 when he was in his seventies. Guru Amardas ji were born as Bhalla Khatri at village Basarke about 13 kms south-west of Amritsar. His father was Tej Bhan Bhalla,, a local petty trader. They were all staunch sanatanists, and vegetarians. Guru Amar das had a wife, two sons and two daughters. He often went to Haridwar and Jwalamukhi on pilgrimages and strictly observed all religious rites and ceromonies. Before coming into contact with Sikhkism Guru Amar Das had crossed sixty years of age. His brother Manak chand lived nearby his house, Manak Chand's wife Bibi Amro use to sing Guru Nanak's hymns. Bhai Amar Das (Later Guru) must have heard her singing many times before. He engquired whose hymns she was singing and immediately made up his mind to call on Guru Angad. It was in 1541, when Amardas was 62 years old. Guru Amardas ji were on Guruship from 1552 to 1574, he moved to Goindwal from Khadur to avoid conflict with Guru Angad's son's., elder of whom named Datu had declared himself as a Guru. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Angad Dev ji (Part:3) The institution of langar was maintained and developed. The Guru's wife personally worked in the kitchen. She also served food to the members of the community and the visitors. Her devotion to this institution finds mention in Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru earned his own living by twisting coarse grass into strings used for cots. All offerings went to the common fund. This demonstrates that it is necessary and honourable to do even the meanest productive work. It also emphasises that parasitical living is not in consonance with the mystic and moral path. In line with Guru Nanak's teaching, the Guru also declared that there was no place for passive recluses in the community. Like Guru Nanak, Guru Angad and the subsequent Gurus selected and appointed their successors by completely satisfying themselves about their mystic fitness and capacity to discharge the responsibilities of the mission.  #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Angad Dev ji (Part-2) Dr Gupta feels that this step, to a certain extent, kept the upper classes among Hindus, to which the Guru belonged, away from Sikhism, partly because they were steeped in the old religious and Brahminical tradition and partly because the Sanskrit tradition fed their ego by giving them a superior caste status to that of the other castes. But, the idea of equality of man was fundamental to the Sikh spiritual system. Thc Guru knew that its association with traditional religious literature would tend to water it down. The matter is extremely important from the point of view of the historical growth and study. Actually, the students of Sikh history know that over the centuries the influence of these old traditions has been very much in evidence. It has sometimes even given a wrong twist to the new thesis and its growth. The educated persons were almost entirely drawn from the upper castes and classes. They had a vested interest, visible also in their writings, in introducing ideas and practices which helped in maintaining their privileges and prejudices of caste superiority, even though such customs were opposed to the fundamentals about the equality of man laid down by the Gurus. For example, the Jats, who were themselves drawn from classes branded as low by the Brahminical system, started exhibiting caste prejudices vis-a-vis the lower castes drawn from the Hindu fold. Earlier, the Punjabi language was written in the Landa or Mahajani script This had no vowel sounds, which had to be imagined or construed by the reader in order to decipher the writing. Therefore, there was the need of a script which could faithfully reproduce the hymns of the Gurus so that the true meaning and message of the Gurus could not be misconstrued and misinterpreted by each reader to suit his own purpose and prejudices. The devising of the Gurmukhi script was an essential step in order to maintain the purity of the doctrine and exclude all possibility of misunderstanding and misconstruction by interested persons. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru
Guru Angad invented the present form of the Gurmukhi script. It became the medium of writing the Punjabi language in which the hymns of the Gurus are expressed This step had a far-reaching purpose and impact. First, it gave the people who spoke this language an identity of their own, enabling them to express their thought directly and without any difficulty or transliteration. The measure had the effect of establishing the independence of the mission and the followers of the Guru. Secondly, it helped the community to dissociate itself from the Sanskrit religous tradition so that the growth and development of the Sikhs could take place unhampered and unprejudiced by the backlog of the earlier religious and social philosophies and practices. This measure, as shown by the subsequent growth of Sikhism, was essential in order to secure its unhindered development and progress as it required an entirely different approach to life. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Finally, on the completion of his tours, he settled as a peasant farmer at Kartarpur, a village in the Punjab. Bhai Gurdas, the scribe of Guru Granth Sahib, was a devout and close associate of the third and the three subsequent Gurus. He was born 12 years after Guru Nanak's death and joined the Sikh mission in his very boyhood. He became the chief missionary agent of the Gurus. Because of his intimate knowledge of the Sikh society and his being a near contemporary of Sri Guru Nanak, his writings are historically authentic and reliable. He writes that at Kartarpur Guru Nanak donned the robes of a peasant and continued his ministry. He organised Sikh societies at places he visited with their meeting places called Dharamsalas. A similar society was created at Kartarpur. In the morning, Japji was sung in the congregation. In the evening Sodar and Arti were recited. The Guru cultivated his lands and also continued with his mission and preachings. His followers throughout the country were known as Nanak-panthies or Sikhs. The places where Sikh congregation and religious gatherings of his followers were held were called Dharamsalas. These were also the places for feeding the poor. Eventually, every Sikh home became a Dharamsala. That Guru Nanak attached the highest importance to his mission is also evident from his selection of the successor by a system of test, and only when he was found perfect, was Guru Angad appointed as his successor. He was comparatively a new comer to the fold, and yet he was chosen in preference to the Guru's own son, Sri Chand, who also had the reputation of being a pious person, and Baba Budha, a devout Sikh of long standing, who during his own lifetime had the distinction of ceremonially installing all subsequent Gurus. All these facts indicate that Guru Nanak had a clear plan and vision that his mission was to be continued as an independent and distinct spiritual system on the lines laid down by him, and that, in the context of the country, there was a clear need for the organisation of such a spiritual mission and society. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Nanak Dev Ji's visit at Hardwar and other places. . . During his tours, he visited numerous places of Hindu and Muslim worship. He explained and exposed through his preachings the incongruities and fruitlessness of ritualistic and ascetic practices. At Hardwar, when he found people throwing Ganges water towards the sun in the east as oblations to their ancestors in heaven, he started, as a measure of correction, throwing the water towards the West, in the direction of his fields in the Punjab. When ridiculed about his folly, he replied, "If Ganges water will reach your ancestors in heaven, why should the water I throw up not reach my fields in the Punjab, which are far less distant ?" He spent twenty five years of his life preaching from place to place. Many of his hymns were composed during this period. They represent answers to the major religious and social problems of the day and cogent responses to the situations and incidents that he came across. Some of the hymns convey dialogues with Yogis in the Punjab and elsewhere. He denounced their methods of living and their religious views. During these tours he studied other religious systems like Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Islam. At the same time, he preached the doctrines of his new religion and mission at the places and centres he visited. Since his mystic system almost completely reversed the trends, principles and practices of the then prevailing religions, he criticised and rejected virtually all the old beliefs, rituals and harmful practices existing in the country. This explains the necessity of his long and arduous tours and the variety and profusion of his hymns on all the religious, social, political and theological issues, practices and institutions of his period. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Nanak Dev ji- Sacha Sauda and Malik Bhago Sakhi When Guru Nanak Dev ji were 12 years old his father gave him twenty rupees and asked him to do a business, apparently to teach him business. Guru Nanak dev ji bought food for all the money and distributed among saints, and poor. When his father asked him what happened to business? He replied that he had done a "True business" at the place where Guru Nanak dev had fed the poor, this gurdwara was made and named Sacha Sauda. Despite the hazards of travel in those times, he performed five long tours all over the country and even outside it. He visited most of the known religious places and centres of worship. At one time he preferred to dine at the place of a low caste artisan, Bhai Lallo, instead of accepting the invitation of a high caste rich landlord, Malik Bhago, because the latter lived by exploitation of the poor and the former earned his bread by the sweat of his brow. This incident has been depicted by a symbolic representation of the reason for his preference. Sri Guru Nanak pressed in one hand the coarse loaf of bread from Lallo's hut and in the other the food from Bhago's house. Milk gushed forth from the loaf of Lallo's and blood from the delicacies of Bhago. This prescription for honest work and living and the condemnation of exploitation, coupled with the Guru's dictum that "riches cannot be gathered without sin and evil means," have, from the very beginning, continued to be the basic moral tenet with the Sikh mystics and the Sikh society. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Nanak Dev ji's mission on enlightenment By all accounts, 1496 was the year of his enlightenment when he started on his mission. His first statement after his prophetic communion with God was "There is no Hindu, nor any Mussalman." This is an announcement of supreme significance it declared not only the brotherhood of man and the fatherhood of God, but also his clear and primary interest not in any metaphysical doctrine but only in man and his fate. It means love your neighbour as yourself. In addition, it emphasised, simultaneously the inalienable spirituo-moral combination of his message. Accompanied by Mardana, he began his missionary tours. Apart from conveying his message and rendering help to the weak, he forcefully preached, both by precept and practice, against caste distinctions ritualism, idol worship and the pseudo-religious beliefs that had no spiritual content. He chose to mix with all. He dined and lived with men of the lowest castes and classes Considering the then prevailing cultural practices and traditions, this was something socially and religiously unheard of in those days of rigid Hindu caste system sanctioned by the scriptures and the religiously approved notions of untouchability and pollution. It is a matter of great significance that at the very beginning of his mission, the Guru's first companion was a low caste Muslim. The offerings he received during his tours, were distributed among the poor. Any surplus collected was given to his hosts to maintain a common kitchen, where all could sit and eat together without any distinction of caste and status. This institution of common kitchen or langar became a major instrument of helping the poor, and a nucleus for religious gatherings of his society and of establishing the basic equality of all castes, classes and sexes. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Nanak Dev Ji's early life Sri Guru Nanak Dev ji was born in 1469 in Talwandi, a village in the Sheikhupura district, 65 kms. west of Lahore. His father was a village official in the local revenue administration. As a boy, Sri Guru Nanak learnt, besides the regional languages, Persian and Arabic. He was married in 1487 and was blessed with two sons, one in 1491 and the second in 1496. In 1485 he took up, at the instance of his brother-in-law, the appointment of an official in charge of the stores of Daulat Khan Lodhi, the Muslim ruler of the area at Sultanpur. It is there that he came into contact with Mardana, a Muslim minstrel (Mirasi) who was senior in age. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
Guru Angad Sahib Ji lived at Khadur Sahib in the Punjab, India. There lived a yogi named Shiv Nath in the same village. Yogis were saints who did not marry. They had a great hold on the people. Shiv Nath was very proud. He became jealous of the Guru's fame. So he started making plans to get rid of the Guru by fair means or foul. He was on the look out for a chance to make the Guru feel small. Once, it did not rain for a long time. There was a danger of drought. So the people were worried. They went to the yogi and asked him to do something about it. The yogi replied in anger, 'How can you expect rain, you fools, when you look upon a married man as your Guru? Turn him out of the village and you will surely get rain." The people were carried away by the yogi's words. They went to the Guru and said, "O Guru, the crops are dying for want of rain. If you will kindly leave this village, the yogi can save us by bringing rain for us." "Dear friends," replied the Guru, "Rain and sunshine are natural. They are in the hands of God. Still, I don't mind leaving the village if it is in your interest." The next day, the Guru left the village. The people went to the yogi once more to ask for rain. The yogi could do nothing against the law of nature. It did not rain. The people waited for some days but then became very angry and realised their fault. They dragged the yogi out of his hut into their fields. It so happened that it rained in every field into which they dragged the yogi. So everyone was keen to drag the yogi into his own field first. They dragged him this way and that till he was sorry and accepted that he lied about the Guru. The villagers were very sorry to have turned the Guru out of the village. They realised their mistake. They went to him and begged his pardon. They brought Guruji back with great respect. The Guru told the people to have faith in the Will of God. He then started a common kitchen in that village, with the help of his followers. This was known as the 'Guru Ka Langar' ("the Guru's Kitchen"). Anyone could come at any time and have a free dinner in the Langar. Men, women and children of all castes and religions sat and ate together. #sikhhistory
THE SECOND SIKH HOLOCAUST (Wadda Ghalughara) Adbali invaded India in early 1761 when the famous battle of Panipat took place between him & the Marathas. There were very heavy losses on both sides.The Sikhs remained aloof & let both of the claimants to Punjab wear themselves out, leaving the Sikhs to be the masters of their lands.Abdali won the battle & ravaged Delhi after his victory. When returning, the exhausted Afghan soldiers loaded with booty, found it impossible to withstand the lightning attack of the Sikhs. They appeared from nowhere, attacked the guards like hawks, took away the looted wealth, & vanished as quickly as they had come. The Khalsa not only liberated some 2000 women prisoners, but also took away much of the treasures, which Abdali had obtained from Delhi. Harassed & bothered by the Sikhs, he left Punjab dejected & extremely angered. After suffering severe damages & heavy losses of men at the hands of the Marathas, he was returning empty handed to his country. Before leaving Punjab, he resolved in his mind to come back with enough force to destroy the Sikhs from the face of the earth.In 1761, after Diwali, the Sikhs occupied Lahore. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was given the title of "Sultanul Kaum", or the King of the Sikh nation.Abdali returned with a large organized force in February 1762. Knowing this, the Sikhs vacated Lahore. About 60,000 Sikh men, women & children were moving to safety in Malwa. Abdali decided to make a lightning to march. He crossed two rivers & covered a distance of more than 150 kilometers in just two days. The cavalry took the slow moving Sikhs by surprise about forty kilometers of south Ludhiana. The Sikhs were with their families & hence, were slaughtered by the objective.This massacre was the heaviest single blow that the Sikhs had to withstand in their history. Abdali also blew up the Harimandar Sahib & filled the Sarovar with refuse & dead cows to destroy the holy place, which he thought was the source of Sikh power. In May 1762, Sikhs took over Sirhind & in Oct 1762, on Diwali day pushed Abdali out of Amritsar. Sikhs died heroic death in order to create conditions in which their fellow men could live with honor.
Akal Takht Originally known as Akal Bunga, the building directly opposite the Harmandir Sahib was founded by sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind, as a symbol of political sovereignty and where spiritual and temporal concerns of the Sikh people could be addressed.Along with Baba Buddha and Bhai Gurdas, the sixth Sikh Guru built a 9 foot high concrete slab. When Guru Hargobind revealed the platform on 15 June 1606, he put on two swords: one indicated his spiritual authority (piri) and the other, his temporal authority (miri). In the 18th century, Ahmed Shah Abdali and Massa Rangar led a series of attacks on the Akal Takht and Harmandir Sahib. Hari Singh Nalwa, a general of Ranjit Singh, the maharaja, decorated the Akhal Takht with gold. On 4 June 1984, the Akal Takht was damaged when the Indian Army stormed Harmandir Sahib during Operation Blue Star. #sikhhistory #history #waheguru #sikhism
TAKHAT SHRI DAMDAMA SAHIB is situated in the Talwandi Sabo In Bathinda Distt. This Holy Takht is 4th Takht of Khalsa Panth. In the year 1705 A.D. SHRI GURU GOBIND SINGH JI while fighting against the cruel rulers, after leaving Shri Anandpur Sahib, Chamkaur Sahib, Deena Kaangar, Muktsar Sahib, Lakhi Jungle, Pakka Pathrala and touching various places with his holy presence, reached here in the year 1705 A.D. It was here that GURU SAHIB took rest by untying his waist band on a raised platform surrounded by Kareer trees. This place became famous as Damdama Sahib. GURU SAHIB stayed at this place for around 1 1/4 year. It was here that GURU SAHIB tested the Singhs for their faith in Sikhism with gun's target. GURU SAHIB also baptised the chaudhary of this area named Baba Dall & gave him the name of Dall Singh. This was the place where Guru Ji also got the holy Beed of Aad Guru Granth Sahib Ji written by Martyr Bhai Mani Singh Ji. This place in remembrance is named as Gurudwara Damdama Sahib. Martyr BABA DEEP SINGH JI got the copies done of the Beed (GURU GRANTH SAHIB JI) & sent it to the 4 Takhts. On Vaisakhi, the Khalsa Foundation Day, it was second time that 1.25 Lakh Singhs were baptised due to which every year on the occasion of Vaisakhi, Sikh followers celebrate it with belief & enthusiasm.#sikhism #sikhhistory
TAKHAT SRI PATNA SAHIB, also known as Harmandir Sahib, is a Gurdwara in the neighbourhood of Patna Sahib, India. It was to commemorate the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru of the Sikhs on December 1666.It was built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-1839), the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire, who also built many other Gurdwaras in the Indian subcontinent. The current shrine of Patna Sahib or Takht Sri Harmandirji Saheb was built in the 1950s. Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, was born in Patna, Bihar, in 1666. He also spent his early years here before moving to Anandpur. Besides being the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, Patna was also honored by visits from Guru Nanak as well as Guru Tegh Bahadur. #sikhism #sikhhistory
Guru Gobind Singh Ji has provided us special identification by providing us 5 Kakaar's (i.e Kesh (Untrimmed Hair), Kara (Steel Bracelet), Kachhehra (Drawers like garment), Kanga (Comb) and Kirpan (Sword) ). So that we can easily be recognised while standing out in a crowd. Moreover, other people who are in any sort of danger or need can easily recognise us and approach us for help at any time. ▪ Kesh: (Kesh is uncut hair) A Sikh is to maintain and adorn this natural God-given gift. To work with nature and not against it. The Kesh was covered with a turban, Keski or Chunni to keep it clean and manageable. The keski is regarded by some the kakkar instead of kesh. ▪ Kanga (wooden comb) for the maintenance and ongoing upkeep of Kesh. A reminder to regularly maintain the body and mind in a clean and healthy state. ▪ Kara (steel bracelet or slave bangle): Symbolises an unbreakable bond with God. It is a constant reminder that the Sikh is a slave of the Lord. He or she must only do his work in accordance with the Holy Scripture; to abstain for wrong-doing at all times. ▪ Kachhera (cotton underwear) Standard, Naturally Comfortable, dignified attire reflective of modesty and control. A sign of a soldier; ever ready; dignified and highly mobile. ▪ Kirpan (a small sword) A sign that a Sikh is a soldier in "Akal Purakh's (God's) Army" (Akal Purakh de fauj); to maintain and protect the weak and needy and for self defence. Never to be used in anger.#sikhism #sikhhistory
The Mool Mantar (also spelt Mul Mantra) is the most important composition contained within the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture of the Sikhs; it is the basis of Sikhism. The word "Mool" means "main", "root" or "chief" and "Mantar" means "magic chant" or "magic portion". Together the words "Mool Mantar" mean the "Main chant" or "root verse". It’s importance is emphasised by the fact that it is the first composition to appear in the holy Granth of the Sikhs and that it appears before the commencement of the main section which comprises of 31 Raags or chapters. MOOL MANTAR ▪IK - There is ONE(Ik) reality, the origin and the source of everything. The creation did not come out of nothing. When there was nothing, there was ONE, Ik. ▪ ONKAAR - When Ik becomes the creative principal it becomes Onkaar. Onkaar manifests as visible and invisible phenomenon. The creative principle is not separated from the created, it is present throughout the creation in an unbroken form, 'kaar'. SATNAM - The sustaining principle of Ik is Satnaam, the True Name, True Name. ▪KARTA PURAKH- Ik Onkaar is Creator and Doer (Kartaa) of everything, all the seen and unseen phenomenon. It is not just a law or a system, it is a Purakh, a Person. ▪ NIRBHAU - That Ik Onkaar is devoid of any fear, because there is nothing but itself. ▪ NIRVAIR- That Ik Onkaar is devoid of any enmity because there is nothing but itself. ▪ AKAAL MURAT- That Ik Onkaar is beyond Time (Akaal) and yet it is existing. Its a Form(Moorat) which does not exist in Time. ▪AJOONI- That Ik Onkaar does not condense and come into any birth. All the phenomenon of birth and death of forms are within it. ▪SAIBHANG - That Ik Onkaar exists on its own, by its own. It is not caused by anything before it or beyond it. ▪GURPARSAAD - That Ik Onkaar is expresses itself through a channel known as Guru and it is only its own Grace and Mercy (Prasaad) that this happens. #sikhism #sikhhistory
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